All posts by mollydb

About mollydb

The most interesting thing about me is that I play bassoon in a band. I like bikes, blueberries, free and open source technology, and wish I could fingerpick.

“Actions, Inactions, and Consequences: Doctrine of Doing and Allowing” W. Quinn

There are a lot of interesting and valid things to say about the philosophy and actual arguments of the “Actions, Inactions, and Consequences: Doctrine of Doing and Allowing” by Warren Quinn. Unfortunately for me, none of them are things I feel particularly inspired by. I’m much more attracted to the many things implied in this paper. Among them are the role of social responsibility in making moral decisions.

At various points in the text, Quinn makes brief comments about how we have roles that we need to fulfill for the sake of society. These roles carry with them responsibilities that may supersede our regular moral responsibilities. Examples Quinn makes include being a private life guard (and being responsible for the life of one particular person) and being a trolley driver (and your responsibility is to make sure the train doesn’t kill anyone). This is part of what has led to me brushing Quinn off as another classist. Still, I am interested in the question of whether social responsibilities are more important than moral ones or whether there are times when this might occur.

One of the things I maintain is that we cannot be the best versions of ourselves because we are not living in societies that value our best selves. We survive capitalism. We negotiate climate change. We make decisions to trade the ideal for the functional. For me, this frequently means I click through terms of service, agree to surveillance, and partake in the use and proliferation of oppressive technology. I also buy an iced coffee that comes in a single use plastic cup; I shop at the store with questionable labor practices; I use Facebook.  But also, I don’t give money to panhandlers. I see suffering and I let it pass. I do not get involved or take action in many situations because I have a pass to not. These things make society work as it is, and it makes me work within society.

This is a self-perpetuating, mutually-abusive, co-dependent relationship. I must tell myself stories about how it is okay that I am preferring the status quo, that I am buying into the system, because I need to do it to survive within it and that people are relying on the system as it stands to survive, because that is how they know to survive.

Among other things, I am worried about the psychic damage this causes us. When we view ourselves as social actors rather than moral actors, we tell ourselves it is okay to take non-moral actions (or in-actions); however, we carry within ourselves intuitions and feelings about what is right, just, and moral. We ignore these in order to act in our social roles. From the perspective of the individual, we’re hurting ourselves and suffering for the sake of benefiting and perpetuating an caustic society. From the perspective of society, we are perpetuating something that is not just less than ideal, but actually not good because it is based on allowing suffering.[1]

[1] This is for the sake of this text. I don’t know if I actually feel that this is correct.

My goal was to make this only 500 words, so I am going to stop here.

NYU VPN

I needed to setup a VPN in order to access my readings for class. The instructions for Linux are located: https://nyu.service-now.com/sp?id=kb_article_view&sysparm_article=KB0014932

After you download the VPN client of your choice (they recommend Cisco AnyConnect), connect to: vpn.nyu.edu.

It will ask for two passwords: your NYU username and password and a multi-factor authentication (MFA) code from Duo. Use the Duo. See below for stuff on Duo.

Hit connect and viola, you can connect to the VPN.

Duo Authentication Setup

Go to: https://start.nyu.edu and follow the instructions for MFA. They’ll tell you that a smart phone is the most secure method of setting up. I am skeptical.

Install the Duo Authentication App on your phone, enter your phone number into the NYU web page (off of ) and it will send a thing to your phone to connect it.

Commentary

Okay, I have to complain at least a little bit about this. I had to guess what the VPN address was because the instructions are for NYU Shanghai. I also had to install the VPN client using the terminal. These sorts of things make it harder for people to use Linux. Boo.

“All Animals Are Equal,” Peter Singer

I recently read “Disability Visibility,” which opens with a piece by Harriet McBryde Johnson about debating Peter Singer. When I got my first reading for my first class and saw it was Peter Singer, I was dismayed because of his (heinous) stances in disability. I assumed “All Animals Are Equal” was one of Singer’s pieces about animal rights. While I agree with many of the principles Singer discusses around animal rights, I feel as though his work on this front is significantly diminished by his work around disability. To put it simply, I can’t take Peter Singer seriously.

Because of this I had a lot of trouble reading “All Animals Are Equal” and taking it in good faith. I judged everything from his arguments to his writing harshly. While I don’t disagree with his basic point (all animals have rights) I disagree with how he made the point and the argument supporting it.

One of the things I was told to ask when reading any philosophy paper is “What is the argument?” or “What are they trying to convince you of?” In this case, you could frame the answer as: Animals have {some of) the same rights people do. I think it would be more accurate though to frame it as “All animals (including humans) have (some of) the same rights” or even “Humans are as equally worthy of consideration as animals are.”

I think when we usually talk about animal rights, we do it from a perspective of wanting to elevate animals to human status. From one perspective, I don’t like this approach because I feel as though it turns the framing of rights as something you deserve or earn, privileges you get for being “good enough.” The point about rights is that they are inherent — you get them because they are.

The valuable thing I got out of “All Animals Are Equal” is that “rights” are not universal. When we talk about things like abortion, for example, we talk about the right to have an abortion. Singer asks whether people who cannot get pregnant have the right to an abortion? What he doesn’t dig into is that the “right to an abortion” is really just an extension of bodily autonomy — turning one facet of bodily autonomy into the legal right to have a medical procedure.  I think this is worth thinking about more — turning high level human rights into the mundane rights, and acknowledging that not everyone can or needs them.

Updates

We are currently working on a second draft of the Declaration of Digital Autonomy. We’re also working on some next steps, which I hadn’t really thought about existing before. Videos from GUADEC and HOPE are now online. We’ll be speaking at DebConf on August 29th.

I’ll be starting school soon, so I expect a lot of the content of what I’ll be writing (as well as the style) to shift a bit to reflect what I’m studying and how I’m expected to write for my program.

busy busy

I’ve been working with Karen Sandler over the past few months on the first draft of the Declaration of Digital Autonomy. Feedback welcome, please be constructive. It’s a pretty big deal for me, and feels like the culmination of a lifetime of experiences and the start of something new.

We talked about it at GUADEC and HOPE. We don’t have any other talks scheduled yet, but are available for events, meetups, dinner parties, and b’nai mitzvahs.

Fire

The world is on fire.

I know many of you are either my parents friends or here for the free software thoughts, but rather than listen to me, I want you to listed to Black voices in these fields.

If you’re not Black, it’s your job to educate yourself on issues that affect Black people all over the world and the way systems are designed to benefit White Supremacy. It is our job to acknowledge that racism is a problem — whether it appears as White Supremacy, Colonialism, or something as seemingly banal as pay gaps.

We must make space for Black voices. We must make space for Black Women. We must make space for Black trans lives. We must do this in technology. We must build equity. We must listen.

I know I have a platform. It’s one I value highly because I’ve worked so hard for the past twelve years to build it against sexist attitudes in my field (and the world). However, it is time for me to use that platform for the voices of others.

Please pay attention to Black voices in tech and FOSS. Do not just expect them to explain diversity and inclusion, but go to them for their expertise. Pay them respectful salaries. Mentor Black youth and Black people who want to be involved. Volunteer or donate to groups like Black Girls Code, The Last Mile, and Resilient Coders.

If you’re looking for mentorship, especially around things like writing, speaking, community organizing, or getting your career going in open source, don’t hesitate to reach out to me. Mentorship can be a lasting relationship, or a brief exchange around a specific issue of event. If I can’t help you, I’ll try to connect you to someone who can.

We cannot build the techno-utopia unless everyone is involved.

Racism is a Free Software Issue

Racism is a free software issue. I gave a talk that touched on this at CopyLeft Conf 2019. I also talked a little bit about it at All Things Open 2019 and FOSDEM 2020 in my talk The Ethics Behind Your IoT. I know statistics, theory, and free software. I don’t know about race and racism nearly as well. I might make mistakes – I have made some and I will make more. Please, when I do, help me do better.

I want to look at a few particular technologies and think about how they reinforce systemic racism. Worded another way: how is technology racist? How does technology hurt Black Indigenous People of Color (BIPOC)? How does technology keep us racist? How does technology make it easier to be racist?

Breathalyzers

In the United States, Latinx folks are less likely to drink than white people and, overall, less likely to be arrested for DUIs3,4. However, they are more likely to be stopped by police while driving5,6.

Who is being stopped by police is up to the police and they pull over a disproportionate number of Latinx drivers. After someone is pulled over for suspected drunk driving, they are given a breathalyzer test. Breathalyzers are so easy to (un)intentionally mis-calibrate that they have been banned as valid evidence in multiple states. The biases of the police are not canceled out by the technology that should, in theory, let us know whether someone is actually drunk.

Facial Recognition

I could talk about for quite some time and, in fact, have. So have others. Google’s image recognition software recognized black people as gorillas – and to fix the issue it removed gorillas from it’s image-labeling technology.

Facial recognition software does a bad job at recognizing black people. In fact, it’s also terrible at identifying indigenous people and other people of color. (Incidentally, it’s also not great at recognizing women, but let’s not talk about that right now.)

As we use facial recognition technology for more things, from automated store checkouts (even more relevant in the socially distanced age of Covid-19), airport ticketing, phone unlocking, police identification, and a number of other things, it becomes a bigger problem that this software cannot tell the difference between two Asian people.

Targeted Advertising

Black kids see 70% more online ads for food than white kids, and twice as many ads for junk food. In general BIPOC youth are more likely to see junk food advertisements online. This is intentional, and happens after they are identified as BIPOC youth.

Technology Reinforces Racism; Racism Builds Technology

The technology we have developed reinforces racism on a society wide scale because it makes it harder for BIPOC people to interact with this world that is run by computers and software. It’s harder to not be racist when the technology around us is being used to perpetuate racist paradigms. For example, if a store implements facial recognition software for checkout, black women are less likely to be identified. They are then more likely to be targeted as trying to steal from the store. We are more likely to take this to mean that black women are more likely to steal. This is how technology builds racism,

People are being excluded largely because they are not building these technologies, because they are not welcome in our spaces. There simply are not enough Black and Hispanic technologists and that is a problem. We need to care about this because when software doesn’t work for everyone, it doesn’t work. We cannot build on the promise of free and open source software when we are excluding the majority of people.

Contact Tracing

Contact tracing is a necessary step

We’re entering the period of local pandemic (whether we’re ready or not) during which we open up our communities, track where we go and who we see, rigorously rest, and then retreat to our isolation should anyone test positive for Coronavirus.

Contact tracing — the process of keeping track of who you might be putting at risk of infection should you become sick — is a necessary step in increasing socialization. When done as an individual, this is record keeping. When doing it through computers, it is surveillance. We could track where we go through rigorous record keeping, which I think would not work out so well for me personally. Alternatively, we could deploy or commandeer a mobile app that would take care of keeping track where everyone is and when they’re there. [1]

[1]: Not everyone has a mobile phone. Let’s acknowledge that.

Contact tracing is surveillance

Computer assisted contact tracing is surveillance, and it will likely be carried out by corporations and governments. It’s information being gathered on our activities and associations, stored and analyzed, and used to report on the social and physical networks we build. This is a flagrant violation of our rights to privacy, to freedom of association, to freedom of assembly. Who we see and where we go will be turned into data points, stored and monitored.

Monitoring has a chilling effect. When people know they are being monitored, it affects their behavior. This is not just that bad behavior is deterred (and it generally is not), but people who would otherwise do harmless or even benevolent things do not, because they are afraid of the side effects it will have on them.

We will get used to surveillance. Whenever we lose some aspect of our privacy, we eventually get used to it. We stop considering it wrong or even an inconvenience, and are less inclined to argue about future erosion of our rights and privacy. When we become acclimated to the loss of a right, when we normalize it, we don’t even think to ask for it back. Rarely do we succeed in rolling back oppressive policies.

Free software is not enough to fight surveillance

Whenever we are being required to use a piece of software, the relevant organizations call for the demand that that software be free: released under a licensing that makes the code available, usable, shareable, and modifiable by anyone. This is a a reasonable request to make when dealing with an otherwise harmless piece of software, however contact tracing contains the potential to be weaponized against individuals and whole populations, carries with it chilling effects, and if, in fact, just another piece of surveillance technology. Even free technology can be unethical technology.

We must create a solution that protects people.

It is not enough to condemn using a technical solution – we must create one that protects the privacy and rights of those using it. Mobile technology is wonderful and we have this amazing opportunity to leverage the fact most of us carry around little computers when we’re on the move. We have the chance to create something that empowers us, giving us the freedom to leave our homes and begin to open our lives up again while building in fail safes for when people begin to get sick.

Software using a free license is part of this story, because it will create accountability for the creators of that software, as the working parts will be verifiable by third parties. However, it is imperative that the software itself is also designed to respect the fundamental physical and digital rights of the people using it: we must protect their anonymity, we must protect their freedom of movement, freedom of association, and freedom of speech. We must give them the opportunity to move through this world knowing they are being protected, not surveilled.

Iron Cocktail Club: Maximillian Affair

The Iron Cocktail Club challenges participants to make a riff on a cocktail based on whatever they have in their homes. I picked the Maximillian Affair because it was highlighted on PUNCH as part of their Tip Your Bartender initiative. In thanks, I tipped the Drink staff for each person in attendance.

The drink is marked by bright acidity, floral notes, and a subtle smokey bitterness. Punt e Mes is a vermouth, somewhere between Rosso Vermouth and Campari. Cazadores Blanco is a silver tequila, notable for its citrus notes, herbal aromas, and smooth finish.

Ingredients

1 ounce St-Germain
1 ounce Cazadores Blanco tequila
½ ounce Punt e Mes
½ ounce lemon juice

Combine all ingredients in a mixing tin and shake with ice. Strain into a chilled coupe.

My Recipe

1 ounce chamomile simple syrup
1 ounce Casamigos Repesado
¼ ounce Aperol
¼ ounce sweet vermouth
½ ounce lemon juice
3 dashes orange bitters

Combine all ingredients and shake with ice. Strain into a chilled mason jar.

Thoughts

I have no clue how I was going to approximate elderflower liquor, which to me is floral with some flavor qualities I also find in grape skin, grapefruit, and lychee. I settled on making a chamomile simple syrup to bring the floral and the sweetness. I thought about adding some rose water or orange blossom water, but decided against it for this case. Most participants used a Campari/vermouth mixture to replace the Punt e Mes. I’m out of Campari, so I used Aperol instead, which I generally treat as interchangeable with Campari in a pinch. I added the orange bitters to bring in some of the citrus the Cazadores Blanco claims to have.

Iron Cocktail Club: Ancho Paloma

The purpose of Iron Cocktail Club is to pick a cocktail and have the participants attempt to make it from whatever they have available.

I picked the Ancho Paloma because it’s the kind of drink I adore, but rarely think to make for myself. It’s turning into spring, and I wanted something light and refreshing.

An ancho paloma, in a peanut butter jar, with a grapefruit wedge.

Ingredients

1½ oz. Siete Misterios Doba-Yej mezcal
½ oz. Ancho Reyes
¾ oz. fresh grapefruit juice
½ oz. fresh lime juice
¼ oz. agave nectar
2 drops salt solution (1:1 salt to water)
Club soda
Grapefruit wedge dipped in sal de gusano

Combine all the ingredients except the club soda in a shaker with ice and shake until chilled. Strain into a Collins glass over ice. Top with soda and garnish.

My Recipe

1½ oz. Casamigos Repasado Tequila
½ oz. Ancho chile simple syrup*
¾ oz. fresh grapefruit juice
½ oz. fresh lime juice
¼ oz. (potato) vodka
pinch smoked salt**
Club soda
Grapefruit wedge sprinkled with smoked salt**

Combine all the ingredients except the club soda in a shaker with ice and shake until chilled. Strain into a mason jar over ice. Top with soda and garnish.

* Ancho Chile Simple Syrup

To make this, take:
½ cup sugar
¼ cup water
2 cut ancho chiles
Cayenne to taste

Put the sugar in a small pot on medium heat. Add the water, ancho chiles, and cayenne. Now comes the hardest part: leave it alone. Just don’t mess with it. Watch it, but don’t touch it. after a while it’ll turn a caramel color. At this point, turn the temperature down to the lowest it goes and stir it. Once it’s appropriately syrupy (think a a bit thinner than agave), turn off the temperature and remove it from the burner. LET IT COOL DOWN BEFORE TRYING IT. Then, add cayenne to taste. Delicious, delicious taste.

A pot of simmering caramel syrup with ancho chiles in it.

**Smoked salt

½ cup kosher salt (or similarly ground salt)
1 tablespoon liquid salt

Preheat your oven to 300 degrees. Mix the salt and liquid smoke. Spread out on a parchment paper covered cookie sheet/baking pan. Put in the oven for 10-15 minutes, or however long it takes to try out.

Smoked salt drying on a baking sheet.

Thoughts

I loved it! It was a Paloma with a bit of heat. Very refreshing. Wonderful spring drink!